Sunday, April 30, 2017

2017 May Day- Challenges Before the Working Class
“The Day will come when our Silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today”
These are the words engraved on the Haymarket Monument in Chicago. The origin of May Day is related to workers struggle for shorter working hours. In the 19th century, in the United States of America, this struggle for shorter hours gained momentum after August 1866 when the National Labour Union at its founding conference voted for action to secure legal enactment of the 8 hour day. Later, the American Federation of Labour was formed which in its convention in 1885 took a decision for strike on May 1, 1886. Preparations started for the strike. The 8-hour movement culminating in the strike on May First 1886 became in itself a glorious chapter in the fighting history of the American working class.
On May 4, a demonstration was held at Hay Market in Chicago to protest against the brutal attack of the police on a meeting of striking workers at the McCormic Reaper Workers on May 3rd, where six workers were killed and many wounded. The meeting was peaceful and about to be adjourned when the police again launched an attack on the assembled workers. Somebody threw a bomb, killing a police man. A battle ensued with the result that seven police men and four workers were dead.
After a farce of legal proceedings, workers leaders – Albert Parsons, August Spies, George Engel, Adolph Fischer and Louis Lingg were sentenced to death, while three others, Samuel Field on, Oscar Neebe and George Schwab were awarded 15 years in jail. Parsons, Spies, Engels and Fischer were hung to death. Lois Lingg committed suicide the night before. Fieldon, Neebe and Schwab were pardoned six years later by Governor Altgeld who publicly termed the judgment as a travesty of justice.
On November 11, 1887, the prisoners were brought to the hangman’s platform. Albert Parsons, August Spies, George Engel and Adolph Fischer stood before the crowd with hoods covering the faces. And then Spies spoke: “The day will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today”.
In June 1893, a monument was unveiled in Chicago’s Waldheim Cemetery in the honour of these May Day Martyrs.
            It was at the first congress of the Second International, held at Paris in 1889, that May First was set aside as a day upon which the workers of the world organized in their political parties and trade unions, were to fight for the demand of 8-hour day. Since then, the working class in countries all over the world started celebrating the May Day.
            May Day was first celebrated in India on May 1, 1923 in Chennai. Founder of Labour Kisan Party and one of the founders of the Communist Party of India, Malayapuram Singaravelu Chettiar was the spirit who organized the May Day celebration for the first time in India. The red flag – now a symbol of left movement –was used for the first time during the event, held on the beach opposite Madras High Court.
            This Indian working class is now facing a very adverse situation. Their hard won rights are under attack. Whatever legal protections and rights the Indian working class got after almost ten decades of struggles and sacrifices in the form of various labour laws are being diluted in the name of labour laws are being diluted in the name of labor law reforms.
            Contract work and outsourcing of work has become the order of the day. Violating all norms of law and even violating the principle of “equal pay for equal work” has become a norm. Regular nature of work is carried out through contract /casual workers who are paid much less than a regular workers despite doing the same work. Labour laws are being violated with impunity. The right to organize a union is under attack. The right to collective bargaining is under attack. Some workers, especially all those in the information technology sector are not allowed to form a union. Concerned government officials just refuse to register unions. Union workers are victimized. Workers are prompted by the employers not to join the union. Social securities are being diluted. So much so that the right to assured pension has been curtailed for government servants and others, and a new pension scheme, which does not assure pension and is share market linked, has been imposed. Public sector units are being sold at a song. Contract /casual workers as also many regular workers are forced to work for more than 10, even 12hours a day without any compensation. The workers in the information technology sector are the worst victim of this, most of whom are engineers and they are forced to work more than 10 and even 12 hours a day.
            Against this, the working class is mobilizing and uniting itself to face this challenge. It has organized several protest actions and nationwide strikes to defend its rights. The last such big action was the all India strike on September 2, 2016, which was unprecedented in terms of participation of workers, its spread and mobilization. But despite all such united and country wide protest actions and strikes the government is going ahead with its anti-working class stance and continues taking more and more decisions against the interests of the working class.
            The May Day calls for carrying out more struggles to counter the offensive of the government. The central trade unions realize the serious challenge before the Indian working class. They are organizing a massive convention workers in Delhi sometime in the last week of June or first week of July to chalk out an action programme.
Long live May Day! Workers of the world unite!!

        From time immemorial relentless battles are being waged against the slavery and misery of the humanity.  The rebellious flag of Spartacus against the Roman Empire, the heroic fight of Africans for generations together in search of Freedom from slavery, the flutters of red flag to save the human values which are under deadly attack on the anvil of industrial revolution.... all are noble struggles to stop the human exploitation.  19th Century stood mute witness to the bloody human history writ with oppression and suppression to maximize the profit at the cost of human lives.  Later part of the19th Century ushered in a new creed of slavery to machines.  The madness for profits peaked and the workers were reduced to the state of machines and the worker in the factory was a mere tool to earn profit for his master.  There were no definite working hours.  There were no respect for labour.   There was no value for labourer.  It is not exaggeration to say that the smoke ridden factories sucked out the life of a labourer at the young age of mere 20 years.  This was the state of condition of workers world over.

          Many dreamt a great society free from exploitation; many wished for a society of eternal source of full realization of human potential in a pleasant and healthy environment; respect for labour, equal opportunities are the hall marks of a new ideal society.  Many dedicated their lives to realize their dream society.  Many more risked their lives to realize and reach that goal.  Every defining moment, every upheaval in the history was the result of the struggles waged by progressive  minds.  These are the struggles that steered and decided the course of history of mankind.

          At its national convention in Chicago, held in 1884, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labour Unions (which later became the American Federation of Labour), proclaimed that “eight hours shall constitute a legal day’s labour from and after May 1, 1886.”  Working class heroes of Hey Market embraced the hanging noose with smile on their lips.  The fight for eight-hour working day spread like a wild fire throughout the Continents.  European and Russian workers jumped into strikes and walked out of their factories.  In India for the first time Howrah Railway workers went on strike for working hours in the year 1882.  Later on Indian workers struck the work for more than 25 times on the demand of working hours between 1882 - 1890.  Eight-hour work; Eight-hour recreation; Eight-hour sleep had become the slogan of the workers worldwide.

          The struggle for eight-hour work has become a stepping-stone for future architect of a new society.  The thought itself is horrifying that, had those struggles not happened and but for their sacrifices what would have been our condition in the present day society!  How degrading it would be to have no control on our own lives?  The struggle for eight-hour work challenged that de-humanizing state annihilating all the atrocities, laid a solid foundation for building a better future society.  Thus, the struggle which appears simple and of no consequence for this generation, stood as a single cause for sweeping changes in the present day society.

          This May Day is the occasion for remembering reverently all the sacrifices and prepare to shoulder the responsibilities.  Still the exploitation is continuing.  Only deference is that the exploiter and exploitation has wrapped in sophistication!  The form of exploitation changed but the reason and essence remains the same.  This situation encompasses all the countries in the world.  The three decades of implementation of so called omnipotent new economic policies destroyed the economic fabric of our country.  The country became dependent on foreign powers.  Our agriculture sector doomed.  Monopoly of our farmers on their own seeds ceased.  Health and education is not within the reach of common man.  Wealth of the nation has been handed over to the private corporates for plundering.  Corporate Sector dented the jealously guarded right of 8-hour work. Now we will find casual and outsourced labour working for 12 hours a day. Technology has not ceased the drudgery of the worker.  Instead workload increased due to the ban on filling up of vacancies.  Unemployment and under-employment increased alarmingly. Central government employees are facing onslaught on their dignity by not honouring the assurance given on the minimum pay, fitment factor and allowances.  Attempts are afoot to weaken and render the unions and working class irrelevant.

          As the conscious workers, employees and citizens of this country, this May Day has manifolded our responsibilities.  The silenced voice of the Chicago Martyrs should explode in reverberation in the raised fists, throats and thoughts of millions of workers.  Let’s march in unison with the inspiration of May Day!  Let’s protect our own rights and be part of that great effort to build a society of equality, justice and usher in peace and prosperity to the toiling millions of our countrymen.


Wednesday, March 15, 2017


16TH MARCH 2017


Within a few hours the historic strike of Central Government Employees including Gramin Dak Sevaks, Casual, Part-Time, Contingent, Daily rated and Contract workers will begin. From Kashmir to Kanyakumari, from North East to Gujarat the strike will be a thundering success. It is an outburst of anger and protest against those who betrayed the central government employees and pensioners.

NDA Govt’s Home Minister Shri Rajnath Singh, Finance Minister Shri Arun Jaitley and Railway Minister Shri Suresh Prabhu cheated and betrayed the cause of 33 lakhs Central Govt. Employees and 34 Lakhs pensioners.

Justice is on our side
Betrayers are on the other side

Ultimate victory will be ours as we believe in
Truth, Justice and Fairplay

We are not ready to surrender the self-respect and prestige of 33 lakhs Central Govt. Employees and 34 lakhs Pensioners. Confederation is not an organization of cowards to run away from the battle field half way.



We are ready for any sacrifice to protect the interest of Central Govt. Employees and Pensioners and also for the larger interest of the toiling masses of our country.

Where other organizations failed and compromised, it is confederation – Confederation alone – which has accepted the challenge to fight against the Government which betrayed the entire Central Govt. Employees and Pensioners.

Confederation is the only glorious organization of hope and inspiration for the entire Central Govt. Employees and Pensioners.

Come one, Come all, Come in Hundreds and Thousands and Lakhs.

Let us make the 16th March 2017 Strike a resounding success.

Let us march forward with determination and courage.

We are not alone, we are not afraid and we shall overcome.

M. Krishnan
Secretary General
Mob & WhatsApp – 09447068125


Saturday, January 28, 2017

FsF]nCbp PnUnFkv (F³F^v]nC),
tIcf kÀ¡nÄ, ]n & än lukv,
kÀçeÀ \¼À:                                              24-01-2017

PnUnFkv I½nän, Iatejv N{µ dnt¸mÀ«v
þ F´p sIm­pw HcSn apt¶m«p Xs¶.þ
{in Iatejv N{µ, dn«sbÀUv saw_À t]mÌ kÀhokÊv t_mÀUv & sNbÀam³ {KmaoWv UmIv tkhIv I½nänbpsS dnt¸mÀ«v 2016 \hw¼À 24\v KhÀsa­në kaÀ¸n¨p. CXnë ap³s]ms¡ PnUnFkv I½nän dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸nç¶ Aì Xs¶ AXv {]kn²oIcnçambnêì, F¶m C{]mhiyw ]Xnhnë hn]coXambn t]mÌ  t_mÀUv AXp c­v amkw XSªp sh¨Xnë tijw, 2017 Pëhcn 19 \v {]kn²oIcnçIbmWv sNbvXXv. AImcWhpw \ymbnIcn¡m³ ]äm¯Xpamb Cu XSªp sh¡Â Aæn ImeXmak¯ns¶Xncmbn, F³F^v]n bpw FsF]nCbp þPnUnFkv Dw tNÀ¶v kwbpàambn {]Xntj[ {]IS\§Ä, Iq« [ÀWIÄ F¶nh AS¡w, Ahkm\ambn {]Jym]n¨ sk{I«dn P\depw aäp P\d sk{I«dnamêw tNÀ¶v UmIv `hsâ ap³]n 18þ01þ2017 apXemcw`nçhm\nê¶ A\nÝnX Ime \ncmlmc kacw AS¡w XpSÀ¨bmb {]t£m`§Ä kwLSn¸n¨n«p­v.

PnUnFkv cwK¯pÅ hnhn[ ImäKdnIsfbpw AhbpsS hnhn[§fmb SnBÀ knF Ém_pIfpw efnXhevIcnçIbpw bpànklambn ]p\:kwLSn¸nçIbpw sNbvXpsIm­v AhêsS thX\hpw aäp shÂs^bÀ amÀ¤§fpw hÀ²n¸nç¶Xpambn _Ôs¸«mWv I½nänbpsS {][m\s¸« ip]mÀiIsfÃmw Xs¶.  \½psS kp{][m\hiyamb knhn tkÀhâv ]Zhn PnUnFkv Poh\¡mÀ¡v AëhZnç¶Xv kw_Ôn¨v I½nän Fs´¦nepw Xc¯nepÅ ip]mÀiIÄ \Sv¯p¶Xn\v X¿mdmbn«nÃ, ]Icw PnUnFkv Poh\¡mêsS \oba ]camb ]Zhn Ct¸mÄ tImSXnbpsS ]cnKW\bnemsWìw AXn\m AXv tImSXn Xs¶ Xoêam\n¡s« FìamWv \nÀt±in¨n«pÅXv. F¶mÂ, PnUnFkv Poh\¡mÀ¡v hmkvXh¯n e`ntí­ \ymbambn AhImi§Ä, AhÀ Un¸mÀ«vsaâv Poh\¡mtcmS¸amæsaìw, tImSXnbn Ahê¶bnç¶ Bhiy§Ä¡v iàn]Iêsaìw aäpapÅ hmZKXnIfp¶bn¨v XSÊs¸Sp¯p¶Xn HêImcyhpanÃsbìw I½nän \nco£n¨n«p­v.

am{Xaà t]mÌ Un¸mÀ«vsaânsâ `mhn \ne\nåv Xs¶ AXnsâ Bßmhmbn {]hÀ¯nç¶ PnUnFkv t]mtÌm^oÊpIfpsS icnbmb amt\PvsaâneqsS am{Xsa km[nç Fìw BßmhnÃmsX Un¸mÀ«vsaâv Hm^v t]mÌn\v \ne\nev¡m\mhnà Fìw IqSn I½nän \nco£n¨n«p­v..  2.6 e£¯ntesd hê¶ hnizkvXcmb PnUnFkv Poh\¡mêsS BÄ_ehpw ]cnNb k¼¯pw, DSs\ Bcw`n¡m³ t]mæ¶ C´y t]mÌv t]bvsaâv _m¦n\mbpw D]tbmKnt¡­Xp­v F¶Xpw I½nän Iméì Fìw ]dªn«p­v.

C¶v \nehnepÅ 11 SnBÀknF Ém_pIÄ kwtbmPn¸n¨psIm­v, {_m©v t]mÌvamÌÀamÀ, CXc Poh\¡mÀ F¶n§s\ c­p sehepItfmSpIqSnb 3 i¼f kvsIbnepIfmWv ]pXnb i¼f LS\bn I½nän ip]mÀi sNbvXncnç¶Xv. sam¯apÅ aq¶v kvsIbnepIfn Hsc®w PnUnFÊnse C¸dbp¶ c­p ImäKdnIÄ ¡mbn \o¡n h¨ncnçì. _n]nFw HgnsIbpÅ CXc PnUnFÊpImÀ¡v 4 aWn¡qÀ U}«nbpw 10000/þ cq] an\naw thX\hpw, A©paWn¡qÀ U}«nbpw 12000/þ cq] an\naw thX\hpw Bbn ^nIvkv sNbvXncnçì. AsX t]mse an\naw kvsIbn _n]nFwkn\v 4 aWn¡qÀ U}«nív 12000/þ A©paWn¡qÀ U}«nív 14500/þ F¶n§s\ ^nIvkv sNbvXncnçì. _n]nFw, AÊnÌâv _n]nFw & PnUnFkv F¶n§s\ aq¶v ImäKdn am{Xam¡n ]p\À hÀ¤oIcWw sNbvXncnçì. {_m©v t]mtÌm^oÊpIfn _n]nFw HgnsIbpÅ FÃm PnUnFkv XkvXnIIfpw AÊnÌâv {_m©v t]mÌv amÌÀ (Asst.BPM), Un¸mÀ«vsaâv t]mtÌm^oÊpIfnepÅ PnUnFkv XkvXnI PnUnFkv ({Kmao¬ UmIv tkh¡v Bbpw ]p\À \maIcWhpw sNbvXn«p­v.  ædª U}«n kabw 4 aWn¡qdpw (seh þ1), (\nehnepÅ 3 aWn¡qdnë ]Icw) amIvknaw 5 aWn¡qdpambn (sehÂþ2) ^nIvkv sNbvXn«p­v. _n]nF½nsâ tPmen `mcw t]mbnâv k{¼Zmb {]Imcw IW¡mç¶Xhkm\n¸n¨p ip]mÀiv sNbvXn«p­v. ]pXnb thX\ LS\sb PnUnFkv {_m©p t]mtÌm^oÊnse dh\| hÀ²\bpambmWv _Ôvs¸Sp¯nbncnç¶Xv. dh\| hÀ²\bpsS ASnkvYm\¯nÂ, FÃm PnUn Fkv t]mtÌm^oÊpIfpw A(Green), B (Orange) , C (Pink) , D (Red) F¶n§s\ Xcw Xncnçw. _n]nF½pw Un¸mÀ«vsaâ Hm^oÊd·mêw Htcm ImäKdn Hm^oÊpIfpsSbpw dh\| hÀ²n¸nç¶Xn\mbn kzoIcnt¡­ \S]SnIfpw hniZoIcn¨n«p­v. C¶v \nehnencnç¶ SnBÀknF Hê ImcWhimepw ædíphm³ ]mSnÃì ip]mÀibp­v. D (Red) ImäKdnbn s¸Sp¶ _n]nFw (dh\|hnsâ Imcy¯n Gähpw ]n¶n \nevç¶ _nH) dh\| hÀ²\bp­m¡m³ X¿mdsæn t]mtÌm^oÊnâv {]hÀ¯\ kabw hÀ²n¸nçI, _n]nF½nsâ C³{Insaâv \nÀ¯nshçI, ^n\m³jy A]v {KtUj³ {]ImcapÅ s{]mtamj³ XSbpI, t]mtÌm^oÊv dnsemt¡äv sN¿pI F¶n§s\bpÅ \S]SnIÄ çw ip]mÀi sNbvXn«p­v. dh\| hêam\w ] dªn«pÅ ]cn[nbn¡qSpXembn Dbê¶ A(Green) ImäKdn Hm^oÊpIfnÂ, eshÂþ2 ë apIfn dh\| ens¦Uv Bbn 10% A[nI thX\w \evæ¶Xnëw ip]mÀibpv­v. hmÀjoI C³{Insaâv \nc¡v 3% ]dªn«p­v. 

I½nänbpsS aäp Nne {][m\ ip]mÀiIÄ Xmsg¸dbpì.

(a) hmSI, Hm^oÊv sabnsâ\³kv, Ce{Înknän, F¶obn\§fn Hê sIms¼mknäv Aeh³kv. (b) æ«nIÄ çÅ ]T\ klmbw (kn C F) (c) kÀÆoÊv Imebfhn 12, 24, 36 F¶n aqì {]tamjëIÄ (km¼¯oI A]v{KtUjëIÄ) (d) FIvkv {Kmjy {Kmä|än ]cn[n, {Kq¸v C³jzd³kv kvIow XpI Ch hÀ²n¸n¨v ip]mÀiv sNbvXn«p­v. (e) 26 BgNvt¯¡v {]kh Ah[nbpw HcmgvNs¯ ]täWnän eohpw. (f) s]bnUv eohnë ]Icw, `mhnbnteç A¡u­v sN¿s¸Smhp¶ 30 Znhks¯ P\d eohv (km[mcW eohv.) eoh¡u­n Iq«n hís¸«Xn 180 Znhks¯ eohv kd­À BëIqeyw. (g) Imjz eohnë kam\amb 5 Znhks¯ FaÀP³kn eohv. (h) Un¸mÀ«vsaâv {]tamj³ ]co£IÄ FgpXp¶XnëÅ ædª tbmKyX kÀÆoÊv Imebfhv HêhÀjw (i) shÂs^bÀ ^­n \nìÅ {KmâpIfpw, km¼¯oI klmb§fpw hfsctbsd DZmch ¡cn¨ncnçì.

skhd³kv Fau­nsâ hÀ²\bpw kÀÆoÊv UnkvNmÀPv s_\n^näv kvIoanteç \evæ¶ XpIbpsS hÀ²\bpw AÃmsX s]³js\¸än Hìw Xs¶ ]cmaÀin¨n«nÃ. CXnë kam\ambn saUn¡Â BëIqey§sf¸änbpw I½nän au\w Zo£n¨ncn¡bmWv. \nehnepÅ am\ZÞ§Ä Aëkcn¨v \ne\nÀ¯\mhm¯ H^oÊpIfpsS dnsemt¡jëw, dnUnt¹mbvsaâpw Xo{h KXnbn ap³t]m«p sIm­pt]mIWsaìw, PnUnFkv t]mtÌm^oÊpIfpsS F®w ædím\mbn C\n Ah AS¨p ]q«êsXìw ip]mÀi sNbvXn«p­v. PnUn Fkv sâ U}«n kabw \nehnepÅ ]cn[n Bb A©paWn¡qÀ Xs¶ \ne\nÀ¯pIbmWv I½nän sNbvXXv.  

_n]nFw knë am{Xambpw, CXc IäKdn¡mcmb PnUnFÊnëw {]tXyIambn c­v bqWnbëIÄ¡v cq]w \evIWsaìw ip]mÀiv sNbvXn«p­v.

I½nän dnt¸mÀ«v \S¸nemç¶ {]iv\amWv C\n hê¶Xv. kzm`mhnIambn«pw GsX¦nepw Hê t]mÌ t_mÀUv AwK¯ns\ Cu dnt¸mÀ«pw I½oj³ ip]mÀiIfpw \S¸nemç¶Xns\¸än ]Tnçhmëw aäpambn C\nbpw GÀs¸Sp¯pw. ]n¶oSv tPmbnâv sk{I«dnbptSbpw ^n\m³jy AssUzÊdpsSbpw ædn¸pItfmsS t]mÌ t_mÀUv AwKoIcntí­Xp­v. AXnëtijw \nbaImcyw , Un¸mÀ«vsaâv H^v t]gvkW Bâv s{Sbn\nwKv, [\Imcyw, F¶o t\mU a{´meb§fpsS AwKoImcw e`níWw. Cu {]{IobIsfÃmw ]qÀ¯nbm¡n ]qÀ®amb s{]mt¸mk Iym_ns\äv ap³]msI AwKoImc¯n\mbn kaÀ¸nçw.

F³F^v]n bpw FsF]nCbpþPnUnFkv Dw Cu I½nän dnt¸mÀ«v, Bg¯n ]Tn¨v \½psS PnUnFkv Poh\¡msc Fs§s\sbms¡ CXp _m[nçw Fì a\Ênem¡n, KpWIcaÃm¯ ip]mÀiIfnt·Â t`ZKXnIÄ Bhiys¸«pw, Dt]£nt¡­ ip]mÀiIÄ Dt]£n¨pw AëIqeamb ip]mÀiIÄ F{Xbpw thKw \S¸nem¡Wsaìw Bhiys¸«psIm­pÅ hniZamb sat½mdm­w X¿mdm¡n DSs\ Xs¶ Un¸mÀ«vsaânë \evæ¶XmWv. 

F³F^v]n bpw FsF]nbpþPnUnFkv Dw PnUnFkv Poh\¡mÀ¡v ]camh[n BëIqey§Ä t\SnsbSp¡m\mbn At§bäw {ianç¶XmWv. Hê ]s£ AëIqe ip]mÀiIfn shÅw tNÀç¶Xn\mé v KhÀsa­v apXnê¶sX¦n A\nÝnXIme ]WnapS¡S¡apÅ t{SUv bqWnb³ \S]SnIfpambn ap³t]m«p t]mæ¶Xn\v F³F^v]n bpw FsF]nbpþPnUnFkv Dw aSn¨p \nev¡nÃ. apgph³ X]m Poh\¡mêw  F³F^v]n , FsF,]nCbpþPnUnvFkv, ]nsPknF, tIm¬s^Utdj³ H^v sk{â KhÀsa­v Fwt¹mbokv Bâv hÀt¡gvkv F¶nhbpsS sImSn¡ognepw _m\dn³ Iognepw AWn\ncìsIm­v Ignª Ime§fn \nc´cambn \S¯nb Dinc³ t]mcm«§fpsS ^e§fmWv I½nänbpsS AëIqe ip]mÀiIsf¶ Ncn{X kXyw \½Ä ad¡msX a\Ên kq£nt¡­XmWv. IqSpX sa¨s¸« tkh\ thX\ hyhkvYIÄ e`nç¶Xnë th­nbpÅ, 2017 amÀ¨vþ16 sâ ]WnapS¡¯n¶mbn Hꡧfmcw`n¡mw. IqSpX sFIyt¯msS hn{iaanÃmsX \½psS A´na e£yamb PnUnFkv Poh\¡mÀ¡v knhn tkÀhâv ÌmäÊv t\SnsbSpçw hscbpw t]mcm« `qanbn Dd¨p \nev¡mw. ktµlanÃ, Iatejv N{µ I½nän dnt¸mÀ«v HcSn ap¶n Xs¶. Bß hnizmkt¯msS hnPb t`cn apg¡ns¡m­v apt¶dmw kJm¡sf , apt¶m«v.  

                                                SABU M.S,